Nick Kyrgios has been fined $25,000 ($33,000) for nearly hitting a ball boy after smashing his racket and yelling an audible obscenity during his Indian Wells loss to Rafa Nadal earlier this month.

Following his 7-6 (7-0) 5-7 6-4 defeat, Kyrgios smashed his racket into the ground and it bounced and nearly struck a ball boy.

The 28-year-old Australian also swore at a fan during the match as he repeatedly clashed with the crowd and the chair umpire.

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Kyrgios was fined $20,000 ($A27,000) for unsportsmanlike conduct and $5,000 ($A6,000) for an audible obscenity, an ATP spokesperson said in a statement.

Nadal said after the match the ATP needed to review things and make decisions to avoid a repeat of similar incidents and a number of players have called for stiffer penalties to curb outbursts after a series of incidents in recent matches.

American Jenson Brooksby threw his racket in frustration and accidentally hit a ball boy during his first-round win over Federico Coria at this week’s Miami Open, for which he received a point penalty instead of a default.

Last month, world No.4 Alexander Zverev received a one-year probation following an expletive-filled tantrum at the ATP 500 event in Acapulco, where he smashed his racket against the umpire’s chair and verbally abused him.

Zverev, who was expelled from the tournament, was fined $40,000 ($A53,000) and forfeited more than $31,000 ($41,000) in prize money before being handed a suspended eight-week ban and being fined an extra $25,000 by the ATP following a review.